Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Different Market Structures in Australia. Answer: Introduction The number of consumers and producers operating in a market defines the type of the market structure. The four types of market structures are monopoly; oligopoly; monopolistically competitive and perfectly competitive market. In perfect competitive market, there are huge number of buyers and sellers who are engaged in buying and selling homogeneous goods and services. In the monopolistically competitive market, there are huge number of buyers and seller. The producer of this market slightly differentiate their products. In the monopoly market structure, there are only sole seller of a commodity or service that has no other substitutes. In the oligopoly market there are small number of sellers sells to huge number of buyers and engages in high competition among themselves (William 2016). This paper will discuss about the different market structure in contest of Australian market. Four big banks operate under oligopoly market structure; water supply authority enjoy monopoly power in th is sector and clothing and apparel has been selected as monopolistically competitive market structure. Market Structures in Australia Oligopoly Market The banking sector in Australia operates under oligopoly market structure. An oligopoly market is characterised by an industry dominated by few firms, who sell identical and differentiated products. This market structure has significant barriers to enter the market. The banking industry in Australia is dominated by four banks. The Commonwealth Bank (CBA); National Australia Bank (NAB); Westpac (WBC) and Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ) together have market cap of more than 400 billion dollars (The Sydney Morning Herald 2015). It accounts for more than 85% of domestic loan value. Though the market is highly competitive, but these four banks have high concentration over the market. The banking sector of Australia has highest barriers to enter the market, because of various capital and controlling necessities. Moreover, the barrier is because of the current market power that these four banks holds, due to which no other firm can even begin to compete with these Big 4 player s without high risks and costs. Hence, all these features of the banking sector of Australia can be linked with oligopolistic behaviour. The four banks can manipulate the market. The four banks are separate entity, but majority shareholders and proxy board members are same in these banks. The banks collude to form the cartel and maximize profits like monopolist. The banks repriced their mortgage books without shifting the official interest rates. This indicates the strong oligopolistic market structure in this industry (Stewart 2015). However, the government of this country focusing on reforming the banking sector by enforcing competition. This causes more transparency and allows customers to move freely between institutions. Monopoly Market In the Australian market, Water supply service operates under the monopoly structure in Australia. The Water supply authority of a region is owned by the respective state-governments; thus it is not a nationwide monopoly (NewsComAu 2011). Water is non-substitutable and has low consumer costs, thus it inherent monopoly. Government has restricted to enter this industry and this has made the water supply market monopolistic in structure. The restriction is created because; being it in the hands of private undertakings, the businesses could have benefit from escaping the fair cost. This would have created potential cost for this necessary commodity. To cut cost, the private business could have compromise the quality of water that is not reliable to be drunk. This eventually would have significant impact on the environment. The monopoly in this sector is sustained because, scarcity of water in this country. Therefore, water supply should be even in different areas and excess water will no t be supplied in order to maximize the profit, unlike competitive industry. However, recently, it has been debated to allow private companies to enter this sector. This is because; as water is scarce, more creator of water is required in this country. It is argued by the experts that allowing others to enter the market will make the market competitive and consumers will be benefitted by paying lower price for water. It is offered that private companies will develop new water supplies and will use the pipelines of the state government or other state-owned utility. This is because; establishing new water distribution pipeline all over the state requires huge investment. Therefore, water distribution is supposed to remain under state-owned authority and private firms will be allowed to create water sources for the citizens (Robins 2014). Monopolistically Competitive Market Apart from the firms operating under oligopoly and monopoly market structure, the rest of the firms in Australia are characterized as monopolistically competitive firm. The clothing and apparel industry operates under this market structure. Many clothing brands in Australia are engaged in competition in this industry. They compete with each other to maximize their profit. The clothing and textile firms produces identical products. These firms make their product different from other firms in terms of design of the clothes; quality of the fabric etc. Hence, the clothing brand can set different prices for its own product. Every firms enjoys certain degree of monopoly power. Since the quality; types of fabric; designs of the apparel; quality of stitching vary from each other, the consumers perceive that these products are not identical. Clothing firms differentiate their products and brand by designing their clothes by reputed designer of the industry. This places the firm into the niche market who can charge high price (Okonkwo 2016). Therefore, product differentiation enables the companies of the clothing industry to set price by their own, hence, enjoying monopoly power. There is little barrier to enter the market, as it requires huge spending to make fabrics and design apparels. The firms put effort to establish their brand name. Entering of some international brands into the clothing industry of Australia, that has increased the competition to the local retailers of cloths and apparels (ABC News 2014). Conclusion In this paper, different market structures of Australia have been discussed. It has been found that the four banks of this nation forms strong oligopolistic structure in the banking sector. The water supply service of the various states of this nation operates under monopoly, however, recently private firms are allowed to create water sources. Among many other industries, the clothing and apparel sector operates under monopolistically competitive market. References ABC News. 2014. Retailers struggle as foreign fashion chains hit Australian market. [online] Available at: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-10/retailers-struggle-foreign-fashion-chains-reach-australia/5735070 [Accessed 12 Aug. 2016]. NewsComAu. 2011.Expert says it's time to end South Australia's water monopoly. [online] Available at: https://www.news.com.au/national/expert-says-its-time-to-end-south-australias-water-monopoly/story-e6frfkp9-1225986642335 [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016]. Okonkwo, U., 2016.Luxury fashion branding: trends, tactics, techniques. Springer. Robins, B. 2014.Water authorities 'must open door to private investors'. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/business/water-authorities-must-open-door-to-private-investors-20140829-10a4w8.html [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016]. Stewart, T. 2015.Australian bank oligopoly 'strong and well'. [online] Investordaily.com.au. Available at: https://www.investordaily.com.au/markets/38717-australian-bank-oligopoly-strong-and-well [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016]. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2015.A golden era of Australian banking is coming to an end. [online] Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/business/banking-and-finance/competition-rising-costs-regulation-why-australian-banks-are-finding-it-tough-20150507-ggw6cw.html [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016]. Williams, J., 2016. Economic insights on market structure and competition. Addiction.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Research Proposal REDUCING THE TIME AND EXPENSE CREATING PROPOSALS PRESENTED TO: Jill Marhefka Professor of Business Research, BSAD 400 . Tracy E. Baker October 11th, 1999 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 BACK GROUND INFORMATION 2 PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4 ESTIMATES OF COST AND SCHEDULE 6 QUALIFICATION OF REASEACHER 8 APPENDIX 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AUTOMATING TO MEET THE NEEDS OF XYZ CONSTRUCTION COMPANY Proposals are extremely important tools in construction, sales and marketing efforts but they also pose some serious challenges. These are some of the specific problems our company is facing: ? Inefficient delivery of information where and when it's needed ? Lack of tools to help construction sales people to work productively ? Difficulty in completing and delivering quality proposals quickly ? Construction sales people are experiencing too much desk time and not enough face time as they wrestle with the challenge of preparing proactive proposals ? Inconsistent looking proposals that contain conflicting and sometimes incorrect information The main goal of this project is to research a specific need expressed by members of the Proposal Development Group and Sales Department, that is the need for an industry specific Proposal Software Program. As outlined in the proposal, this is to be accomplished through significant interaction between the researchers, Information Management department and experts in the Proposal Development Group and Sales Department. This type of cooperative agreement is seen as fundamental to the success of all projects. BACKGROUND INFORMATION THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF A PROPOSAL WRITER PROGRAM ON XYZ COMPANY XYZ Company has generated 1,000 proposals (of which 30 percent are less complex; 70 percent more complex) during FY 1999. Members of the XYZ's Proposal Group have spent approximately 46,000 hours in proposal writing! This however, does not include revisions made due to addendums to R.F.P.s. Below is a summary of cost incurred by the XYZ Company through FY 1999. It should be noted that XYZ Company has generated hard copies of every proposal written for not only the clientele but also our Sales Executives, in order to keep them abreast of changes. This was to ensure that the Sales Executive could respond to all questions as concisely and efficiently as possible. Proposals Written Proposal Addendums Time to write one proposal 16 hours?less complex 60 hours?complex Approximately 1 hour less complex 12 hours complex Overhead charge rate for a proposal writer's time $45.00/hr $45.00/hr Number of proposals / addendums written each year 300 less complex 700 complex 200? Per 1000 proposals Approximate total costs $2,160,000.00+ $391,500.00 PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF A PROPOSAL WRITER PROGRAM ON XYZ COMPANY Problem Statement The proposal processes in the construction industry is intensive. Many tasks are highly repetitive, and may require significant F.T.E. (full time equivalent) man-hours to produce. Many jobs require numerous revisions when posed with addendums to the RFP by owners who are uncertain of their wants and needs. The Management Problem Is As Stated Below: Can we develop a software package that will meet the guidelines of the Proposal Development group and the Sales department? Objectives: (1.0) To ensure the potential system will function with the data structures used within our system. (2.0) To develop a software program which will formulate faster responses to R.F.P.s. (3.0) To create a well-designed system which is easy to learn. (4.0) To determine if a pricing engine is needed within the data structure. (5.0) To asses the need for a sales and marketing database. (6.0) To evaluate the need to develop a clientele database. (7.0) To investigate the potential of reduction of overall paper usage. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF A PROPOSAL WRITER PROGRAM ON XYZ COMPANY Research Design The Information Gathered will be representative of the Information Management group, the Proposal Development group, and the Sales Executives. The Information management group will be surveyed independently from the Proposal Development group and the Sales Executives, however, there will be a set of questions on each of the two surveys that are identical. This will be detailed in the Proposed Data Collection section. All information Gathered will be utilized in the evaluation of the potential for the development and or feasibility of development concerning the afore mentioned proposal software. Proposed Data Collection Procedures To ensure the potential system will function with the data structures used within our system, and to create a well-designed system, which is easy to learn, Information management will be surveyed independently of the Proposal Development group and the Sales Executives. To determine if a pricing engine is needed
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Pros of Video Games Essay Example Pros of Video Games Essay Pros of Video Games Essay Playing Video games is a fun and people have several astonishing memories involve them. Playing the video games does not mean anything inherent provided one scheme his or her schedules well. Many use them a way of escapism, that is, a system of passing the time if one has nothing better on which to focus. Frank Manjoo, in his article, notes Tom Bissells question on whether playing video games is a fun or addiction.; This paper argues against the opinions that the video contributes a to a massive time wastage by considering Frank Manjoo;s work. Red dead redemption description Red Dead Redemption (RDR) is a very popular video game which has a minimum or no adverse impact on ones social life or any other significant piece of work. One needs to break at least at some point during his or her daily duties. The game provides such a perfect moment whereby one enjoys an absorbing fun hence it is a more of refreshment. Entertainment, which the game provides to an individual, is part of life according to the theory of enjoyment. It is, therefore, advisable for one to play the game as frequent as possible to at least meet the demands of life. One should therefore not have a feeling of guilt when spending considerable hours of the day playing the game if it has such a critical contribution to the continuity of ones life. Based on entertainment alone, this type occurs at a personal level whereby one can adjust the level at which he or she needs to enjoy it. Somebody playing, the video games, for instance, Tom Bissell, in our case, will choose the best game which would best entertain him. RDR, among the other popular games, are not associated with instilling emotion to their players. The writer of the article, Frank Manjoo, refers to his personal experience where RDR or any other game has never moved him emotionally as had been happening to him in the case of his best movies, music, and the TV shows. Frank Manjoo refers to Tom Bissell supports the issue of playing video games and notes no bad experience in it the exercise. He, however, notes that the problem that emerges only lies within a feeling of a kind of embarrassment and guilt. This outlines the potential point at which playing video games may be hazardous. Therefore, the act itself is okay, but the mentality and perception are the greatest determiners of the influence on one. Benefits of video games One can involve in playing the video games and the other professional activities proceeds. It is not so habitual that one may ignore his source of income. Tom Bissel is a middle-aged man who is the serious gamer and as well proceeds with his work of journalism. He praises the extent to which he enjoys the game and helps him manage time. He is however torn within doubts on whether to consider playing video games a wastage of time or a proper way of utilizing time. Frank Manjoo who investigates and demonstrates the argument and behavior of the victim, Bissels holds that it is an important means of spending time. He considers Bissels culture to be okay, on which note he argues that it does not waste time but rather helps manage time. The fact that playing games can happen concurrently with other relevant occupational activities it is, therefore, such an important exercise. Franks article does not reach any point on this note, where Bisell complains of playing games depriving him the val uable time for taking part in big deals. Bissell notices a kind of game involving an excellent gameplay and is humorous in its storyline. He acknowledges that those who praise such games would have been accurate analysts. Bissell, however, wonders what the other type of games which do not instill humor in the users would impact on them. He, therefore, wonders if people should abandon such games. , Frank Manjoo;s writing is intervention to Bisell;s doubts by assuring the players and any other prospective player that playing video games has nothing to do with depriving one, happiness but rather depends on ones perceptions. Games have the ability to enable the player to feel happy due to the humorous aspects. Video games however, at times may also appear to waste time to the player. However much enjoyable and exciting playing the video games may be, one spends a considerable period concentrating on it. There exist chronic players of the games like Tom Bissell who is a victim of Red Dead Redemption addiction. He expresses that he spends a long number of hours focusing on the game can best be translated into some form of idleness where one fails to utilize time which is an important resource in the right way. This aspect and effect of video games there deem them possible ways of massive wastage of time. It is, therefore, disadvantageous on this note.
Friday, November 22, 2019
The House of Capulet in Romeo and Juliet The House of Capulet in Romeo and Juliet is one of fair VeronaÃ¢â¬â¢s two feuding families- the other being the House of Montague. CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, Juliet, falls in love with Romeo, the son of Montague and they elope, much to the anger of their respective families. Heres a look at the major players in the House of Capulet. Capulet (Juliets Father) Hes head of the Capulet clan, married to Lady Capulet and father to Juliet. Capulet is locked in an on-going, bitter and unexplained dispute with the Montague family. Capulet is very much in charge and demands respect. He is prone to rage if he does not get his own way. Capulet loves his daughter very much but is out of touch with her hopes and dreams. He believes that she should marry Paris. Lady Capulet (Juliets Mother) Married to Capulet and mother to Juliet, Lady Capulet appears distanced from her daughter. It is interesting to note that Juliet receives most of her moral guidance and affection from the Nurse. Lady Capulet, who also married young, believes it was high time Juliet was married off and chooses Paris as the appropriate candidate. But when Juliet declines to marry Paris, Lady Capulet turns on her: Talk not to me, for Ill not speak a word; do as thou wilt, for I am done with thee. Lady Capulet takes the news of her nephew Tybalts death extremely hard, going so far as to wish death on his killer, Romeo. Juliet Capulet Our female protagonist is 13 years old and about to be married to Paris. However, Juliet soon stumbles upon her fate when she meets Romeo,Ã and instantly falls in love with him, despite him being the son of her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s enemy. Over the course of the play, Juliet matures, making the decision to abandon her family to be with Romeo. But like most women in Shakespeares plays, Juliet has little personal freedom. Tybalt Lady CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s nephew and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin, Tybalt is antagonistic and has a deep hatred of the Montagues. He has a short temper and is quick to draw his sword when his ego is in danger of being damaged. Tybalt has a vindictive nature and is feared. When Romeo kills him, this is a major turning point in the play. JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s Nurse A loyal maternal figure and friend to Juliet, the Nurse provides moral guidance and practical advice. She knows Juliet better than anyone else and provides comic relief in the play with her bawdy sense of humor. The Nurse has a disagreement with Juliet near the end of the play which demonstrates her lack of understanding about the intensity of JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about love and about Romeo. Servants of the Capulets Samson: After the Chorus, he is the first character to speak and establishes the conflict between the Capulets and the Montagues. Gregory: Along with Samson, he discusses the tension in the Montague household. Peter: Illiterate and a bad singer,Ã Peter invites guests to the CapuletsÃ¢â¬â¢ feast and escorts the Nurse to meet with Romeo.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Business Process Management Reflective Analysis - Essay Example According to ChandlerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, strategy refers to Ã¢â¬Å"the determination of the basic, long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for those goalsÃ¢â¬ (Mazzucato, 2002). Michael Porter, on the other hand has defined strategy as the Ã¢â¬Å"broad formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be and what policies will be needed to carry out these goalsÃ¢â¬ (Harmon, 2007). It is quite clear that there are three different phases that form the strategy. In the first phase management identifies what the company is doing now. In other words, they identify the existing strategies of the company. In the next phase it is important to understand about the environment in which the company operates in and in the final phase management has to decide about the next actions that are required to be taken. These decisions are taken by comparing the environmental situation with th e companyÃ¢â¬â¢s existing strategies (Harmon, 2007). The concept regarding value chain is made popular by the famous management expert Michael Porter. Now it is considered as one of the most crucial sources of sustainable competitive advantage for the business organizations. The basic idea of value chain is referred to the processes that convert the raw materials into the finished products that are saleable as well as consumable. It engages the main activities of a company and these activities are organized in such a way that each of them adds Ã¢â¬ËvalueÃ¢â¬â¢ to the entire business operation. In simple words value chain is the combination of the supply chain and distribution chain (Orcullo, 2007). Michael Porter has developed a specific model on value chain. In this model there are five primary activities that are directly responsible for value creation. In order to support these five activities, there are four secondary activities that indirectly create values. Primary activ ities are Ã¢â¬Ëinbound logisticsÃ¢â¬â¢ that involve activities regarding receiving and storing of raw materials, Ã¢â¬ËoperationsÃ¢â¬â¢ that involve activities related to processing of raw materials, Ã¢â¬Ëoutbound logisticsÃ¢â¬â¢ which involve collection and distribution of final products, Ã¢â¬Ëmarketing and salesÃ¢â¬â¢ that are nothing but the activities associated with promotion, advertising, sales, channel selection etc. and finally Ã¢â¬ËservicesÃ¢â¬â¢ that involve actions regarding the Ã¢â¬Ëafter sales servicesÃ¢â¬â¢ that are given to satisfy the consumers (Van Weele, 2009). While researching, I have discovered the importance of value chain in the modern management. I have found that the concept is applicable in all types of organizations, be it a service provider or be it a product manufacturer. I have found several books and online articles that describe the basic idea of Ã¢â¬Ëvalue chainÃ¢â¬â¢. I have also found that Michael Porter has developed a v ery useful model that describes the usual value chain of an organization irrespective of the nature of business that it does. Enterprise Architecture and Business Strategy In the present competitive business scenario an integrated approach to both IT and business is indispensible for achieving desired level of success. With the expansion of business operations, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations are getting more and more complex. In order to manage extreme complexity inside of an organization
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Juvenile probation etc - Essay Example According to the chief components present in the IAP model, the program greatly aims at diminishing recidivism through intensive supervision and control measures, strengthening family and community relations with individualized case planning and reinforcing progress in the improvement of personal well-being by incentives and an enthusiastic case management utilizing resources within the community (Wiebush, McNulty, & Le, 2000). Failures however in meeting certain objectives of IAP result from implementation problems such as staffing vacancies, institutional crowding, and unstable program environments. Successful operation nevertheless takes into account the consistent adherence to the core characteristics of the model and that it is found to establish more strength for the institution in collaborating with the external support teams of aftercare and research. GROWTH, on the other hand, specifically provides intensive aftercare for high-risk female juvenile offenders. Managed by Boys and Girls Clubs of South Alabama, Inc. with the help of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this program makes use of Network Aftercare System (NAS), an IAP adaptation. Principal components are inclusive of female-specific life skills, adventure therapy, community service, academic education, and Functional Family Therapy. Female offenders are administered a one-year aftercare monitoring and supervision upon release from detention. GROWTH keeps up with the similar goal to reduce recidivism as well as pregnancy rates and to increase job placements for GROWTH participants and these are all part of the program's documented success. No significant failure has been evaluated to emerge during program implementation as GROWTH promotes additional services such as individual and group therapy, substance abuse treatment, and mentoring. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) being another aid in a stage after probation, developed at the Oregon Social Learning Cent er, provides highly trained foster parents, intensive support from a clinical team, and a tightly structured program. Besides becoming less prone to slip back into old delinquent patterns of behavior, MTFC sets goal that ensures better peer associations and development of both academic and professional skills. The program gives sufficient focus on individualized treatment where behavior is monitored and recorded on a daily basis through contacting the foster parents via the telephone. No ample amount of data shows evidence of the program's shortcomings and as part of the program's success, MTFC participants experience fewer arrests, minimal involvement or interest in delinquent activities and lesser timeframe of incarceration. Facilitating males of ages 13 to 18 for whom the Maryland Department of Juvenile Services render committed obligations, Thomas O'Farrell Youth Center serves treatment concentrated on the development of positive social norms. Planning for aftercare begins at ad mission to residential treatment where youth spend an average of eight months. While in residential care, youths are assigned two caseworkers each and these persons are required to look
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Syllable Formal Ion Essay Thus a meaningful language unit phonetically may be considered from the point of view of syllable formation and syllable division. The syllable is a complicated phenomenon and like a phoneme it can be studied on four levels articulatory, acoustic, auditory and functional. The complexity of the phenomenon gave rise to many theories. We could start with the so-called expiratory (chest pulse or pressure) theory by R. H. Stetson. This theory is based on the assumption that expiration in speech is a pulsating process and each syllable should correspond to a single expiration. So the number of syllables in an utterance is determined by the number of expirations made in the production of the utterance. This theory was strongly criticized by Russian and foreign linguists. G. P. Torsuyev, for example, wrote that in a phrase a number of words and consequently a number of syllables can be pronounced with a single expiration. This fact makes the validity of the theory doubtful. Another theory of syllable put forward by O. Jespersen is generally called the sonority theory. According to O. Jespersen, each sound is characterized by a certain degree of sonority which is understood us acoustic property of a sound that determines its perceptibility. According to this sound property a ranking of speech sounds could be established: voiceless plosives ( voiced fricatives (voiced plosives ( voiced fricatives ( sonorants ( close vowels (open vowels . In the word plant for example we may use the following wave of sonority: [pla:nt]. According to V. A. Vasssilyev the most serious drawback of this theory is that it fails to explain the actual mechanism of syllable formation and syllable division. Besides, the concept of sonority is not very clearly defined. Further experimental work aimed to description of the syllable resulted in lot of other theories. However the question of articulatory mechanism of syllable in a still an open question in phonetics. We might suppose that this mechanism is similar in all languages and could be regarded as phonetic universal. In Russian linguistics there has been adopted the theory of syllable by LV Shcherba. It is called the theory of muscular tension. In most languages there is the syllabic phoneme in the centre of the syllable which is usually a vowel phoneme or, in some languages, a sonorant. The phonemes preceding or following the syllabic peak are called marginal. The tense of articulation increases within the range of prevocalic consonants and then decreases within the range of postvocalic consonants. Russian linguist and psychologist N. I. Zhinkin has suggested the so-called loudness theory which seems to combine both production and perception levels. The experiments carried out by N. I. Zhinkin showed that the arc of loudness of perception level is formed due to variations of the volume pharyngeal passage which is modified by contractions of its walls. The narrowing of the passage and the increase in muscular tension which results from it reinforce the actual loudness of a vowel thus forming the peak of the syllabic. So the syllable is the arc ?f loudness which correlates with the arc of articulatory effort on the speed production level since variations in loudness are due to the work of all speech mechanisms. It is perfectly obvious that no phonetician has succeeded so far in giving an adequate explanation of what the syllable is. The difficulties seem to arise from the various possibilities of approach to the unit. There exist two points of view: 1. S?me linguists consider the syllable to be a purely articulatory unit which lacks any functional value. This point of view is defended on the ground that the boundaries of syllables do not always coincide with those of morphemes. 2. However the majority of linguists treat the syllable as the smallest pronounceable unit which can reveal some linguistic function. Trying to define the syllable from articulatory point of view we may talk about universals. When we mean the functional aspect of the syllable it should be defined with the reference to the structure of one particular language. The definition of the syllable from the functional point of view tends to single out the following features of the syllable: a) a syllable is a chain of phonemes of varying length; b) a syllable is constructed on the basis f contrast of its constituents (which is usually of vowel consonant type); c) the nucleus of a syllable is a vowel, the presence of consonants is optional; there are no languages in which vowels are not used as syllable nuclei, however, there are languages in which this function is performed by consonants; d) the distribution of phonemes in the syllabic structure follows by the rules which are specific enough fo r a particular language. 2. The structure and functions of syllables in English Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel consonant.